Year TIMELINE CONTENT B.C.-1600 1600-1800 1800-1890 1890-1945 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 correction
Generations aka Eras manual, mechanical, electro-mech, vacuum tube, transistor (60s foundation era), ICs leading to the micro, WWW, In your pocket: small form factor devices, Pre-computer Pre-Computer: Manual Pre-computer: Mechanical & Electric. Pre-computer: Electro-mechanical Pre-computer Electronic: Vacuum tube     Gordon Bell's Timeline  of Computing History           1st Gen: Vac. Tube   Gordon Bell's Timeline  of Computing History   2nd  Gen: Transistors   Mainframe Era. Snow White & 7 dwarfs: Burroughs, CDC, GE, Honeywell, NCR, RCA, UNIVAC > BUNCH.       Minicomputer class Austin Mini, mini-skirt, etc. 3rd Gen: SSI, MSI. 100tr/chip 100 minicomputer companies form   Four Phase: First MicroP.   4th Gen: uP, LSI. 4Ktr/chip               VLSI   68Ktr/chip     100s of PC companies form with Intel arch.       275 Kt/chip     1.6 Mt/chip       The Web Arrives   WWW Era - Mobile Computing 1000s of web services form       SmartPhone           1 TB/disk   Timeline of Computer History         566
Epoch Inventions 1250 BC: Ten commandments, first rule based program. Paper. Printing. Maxwell's Equations (1860). Bell: telephone message (1874). Cards computing. Vacuum tube (1906). Flip-flop (1919) Computation done electronically EDVAC First Draft of a Report: the stored program computer recipe! ENIAC proof. Bell Labs: Transistor. Williams Tube storage @ Manchester U. First program: Kilburn, Manchester. Leo & UNIVAC I, delay lines; UNIVAC Mag. Tape replaces cards. Core Memory on MTC at MIT. IBM 726 tape unit. Texas Instruments: Si transistor for $2.50. BTL: Tradic 800 transistor computer. IBM 305 5 Byte Disk (RAMAC) FORTRAN used. Kilby: IC patent w/wires. Noyce: IC patent planar process. Fairchild (Hoerni) planar transistor. Fairchild IC. U Manchester: One level store. COBOL, LISP. Fairchild RTL IC. MIT CTSS.  Sketchpad IBM 360 Announce 4/7. CDC 6600 (begin Cray era) Moore's Law posited. Cooley Tukey algorithm. Monolithic Mem chip. Fairchild 8-bit ALU. UNIX @ BTL. IBM: E F Codd Relational Database TR. Four Phase Microprocessor. Intel 4004 chip uP. Intel 1Kbit memory. IBM: 8" Floppy. Email. Intel 8008. Eckert Mauchly patent invalidated by JV Atanasoff. Xerox PARC: Alto & Ethernet. MITS Altair Kit (Popular Electronics cover). MOS Tech: 6502, 1st PCs. Intel 8080 & Zilog Z80. Cray 1 Vector architecture for 2 decades First personally affordable  computers. C  Language Manual 1st Edition. Visicalc (spreadsheet) for Apple II. CD. MS DOS.  IBM: PC defines Wintel std. DEC-Intel-Xerox: Ethernet std (802.11). Microsoft: Word. Caltech: Cosmic Cube,  1st Scalable. Apple Macintosh CERN establishes HTML.  URL. WWW Windows 3.1. Mosaic Browser founded to archive www iPod: Media Player class. Wireless sensor networks class:  Internet of Things.   Amazon Elastic Cloud, EC2 iPhone: Smartphone class. iPad: tablet class. IBM Watson wins Jeopardy. 46
Control technology:  Machines aka Algorithms, Architectures, Languages, and Operating Systems Algorithms, languages, recipes, instructions, etc. pre computing, and architecture.  3-5 lines: algorithms, architectures, languages, and some operating systems  Water clock (283).  Clock (1300).  Ten Commandments (rule based system).  Boole: The Mathematical Analysis of Logic (1847). Babbage: starts Diff Engine (1822). Babbage: Analytical Engine (1833). Scheutz Difference Engine (1853). Shannon Thesis: Boolean Algebra for Switching Circuits. Zuse Z3 tape programed.  Mark I tape program EDVAC Draft report 6/30. Zuse Plankalkul (Plan Calculus),  ENIAC vacuum tubes, patch cord program. IAS Paper: Burks…von Neumann. IAS paper. Big Bang. Manchester "Baby" 16 words Williams Tube 6/21 op.  Shannon: Chess paper & Mouse. EDSAC team wrote 1st programming book Hopper: A-O compiler using English syntax. Backus FORTRAN start. Microprogramming described (Wilkes). Simon et al: Logic Theorist. FORTRAN II for 704 Samuel Chess program. Algol 60 Spec. COBOL. LISP.  SNOBOL. MIT CTSS timesharing demo. Atlas: One level store. IBM (Iverson): A Programming Language.  APL.  OS 360 announce. Simula introduces objects.  Dijkstra: "Goto harmful". Unics=>Unix. Smalltalk-71 (PARC). C  Language MIT LISP Machines. Berkeley 1BSD. IBM Research 801 first RISC. Symbolics & LISP Machines Inc: build LISP Machines through 1989. Patterson et al: "A Case for the reduced instruction-set computer." Lotus 1-2-3. Matlab introduction. GNU (Stallman). Stanford MIPS. Bjarne Stroustrup: C++ Apple Hypercard Wolfram Mathematica. Simcity. Linux Introduced using GNU). Java 1.1 Nest Lab (Home). C.Plastic. C.mxmxm. 5 45
MINICOMPUTERS, MICROCOMPUTERS, CHIPS aka Control Computers:  Minicomputers, microprocessors, microcomputers, wireless sensor nets, etc. used for controlling other systems. 2 or 3 Lines: micros, minis, process control, embedded computers Antikythera Calc. Jacquard Loom (1801-06) Norden Bombsight (?). IBM SSEC (relays & tubes). MIT Whirlwind: core memory; Mem. Test Computer (MTC) 1st use. MIT (Lincoln Lab) SAGE (semi-auto ground environment) for air defense Computer typesetting. DEC: PDP-5 (mini forerunner). SDS: 910, 920, 930. DEC: PDP-8. Computer Controls: DDP 116, 16-bit mini.  Apollo Guidance Computer: IC. Honeywell DDP 516: IC mini. HP 2115. Medtronic pacemaker w/ICs. DEC: PDP-8/I IC computer. DG Nova (one board). Apollo Guidance Computer. Four Phase Systems microprocessor based data entry computer. DEC PDP-11/20. Intel 4004 chip uP. Application control of calculator PDP-11/45 (semi memory) Intel: 8080. Zilog: Z-80. Interdata: 32-bit mini. PDP-11/70 (cache). ARM Chip intro. DEC: VT 78  PDP-8 word process.   Intel: 8086.  Motorola 68,000, 68Ktransistors enable workstations. Intel 8088 29 Trans. IBM 801 RISC. PARC: Snalltalk-80 released. Intel 286 Sequent "multi". MIPS: RISC processor. Encore Multimax "multi" (shared memory multiprocessor). BTL: Optical transistor. Intel: 386. Sun SPARC (RISC) gate array. Motorola: 68030.  Intel 486 1.6 Mtrans.  Motorola: 68040 1.2 Mtrans. IBM PowerPC. SUN Viking (SuperSPARC) chip. Intel: Pentium Pister: WSN Proposal. Intel Itanium. AMD: Opteron 64-bit X86 Intel: Extended Memory Architecture  AMD Opteron Multicore. Nest Labs thermostat: IoT? 10 46
SUPERCOMPUTERS aka Calculating Computers: Scientific and Engineering especially High Perf. Comp. (HPC) Early calculators & the stored program computer. Early computers. Supercomputers: the Cray Era until Scalables take all.             2 Lines: fastest computers - Cray to Scalables; Minis and super minis (perf/price)  Abacus: arithmetic. Orreries (1750). Hermann Palnimeter (1814). Casper Wetli’s wheel and disk integrator (1849). Kelvin's Harmonic Analyser (1878) Zuse start. Bush's Differential Analyzer (1930). Universit Differential Analyzers (1930-1947). AC Network Analyzers (1929-1960). Atanasoff idea conception winter Harvard Mark I=IBM ASCC start; ABC (marginal) op. Zuse Z3: relays,  tape program, Bletchley Park: Bombe. Colossus use;  Harvard Mark I (IBM ASCC) op.  ENIAC start. BTL:Relay Interpolator (model II). IBM ASCC dedicated at Harvard as Mark I. ACE start (Turing Report); ENIAC op; EDSAC 512 words delay line memory 5/6 op. Machester Mk I. Northrup MADDIDA (Magnetic Drum Digital Differential Analyzer). NPL Pilot ACE.NBS: SEAC & SWAC. Nordsieck’s Differential Analyzer. Reeves Electronic Computer-REAC. MIT: Whilrwind electrostatic memory. IAS operated. George A, Philbrick Operational Amplifiers enable analog computing. IBM 701 (Defense Calculator). IBM 650. IBM 704. Project Stretch start. IBM 709. NEC NEAC I (transistor). Electronica Associates, Inc (transistor) analog. Comp centers: IBM 7090 (transistor).  UNIVAC 1108 (transistor). CDC 1604. CDC 160 for offline.Ferranti Atlas intro. UNIVAC LARC June.  IBM Stetch LASL May accept. Manchester-Ferranti Atlas fastest op.  Atlas (one level store aka virtual memory). IBM 7094. IBM 7040,7044. IBM 360 for Science & Commercial announce 4/7.   Univac 1108 from ERA div. CDC 6600 delivery.  IBM 7094 II. Amdahl's Law posited. SIMULA as first object oriented lanaguage. EAI-CDC 6400 Hybrid Analog-Digital computer. IBM 360/91-95 "fighting machine" to compete with 6600 => consent decree. IBM: 360/85 cache. CDC 7600 ILLIAC IV (SIMD). HP 35. TI Adv. Sci Comp. HP 65 Programmable Calc. CDC: STAR Delivery (String-Array).  Cray 1: establish vector architecture  DEC: VAX 780 mini (perf/$) & VMS. Cyber 205 Cray: XMP 420 Mflops. Cal Tech Cosmic Cube: 64 node hypercube. Scalable era begins. Cray: XMP. Convex: C-1 supermini. Fujitsu VP-200. Hitachi S/810. NEC SX-2. Alliant: FX-1 supermini. nCube. iPSC personsal supercomputer.NSF Centers: NCSA, SDSC. Livermore Loops benchmark. Cray2. Thinking Machines: CM1 (SIMD). NEC SX-1e. IBM 3030 (Vector Facility). Sandia:1st Bell Prize, 1K node nCUBE. XMP: 1/2 GF. ETA: ETA-10 GF succeeds CDC-line. Fujitsu VP-400. Hitachi S/820. Supercompuing 1988 (No.1).Cray YMP: 2.7 GF, 8 proc. Convex: C2 mini-super. Ardent: Graphic Super.  Cray Computer: Cray3 (last) Thinking Machines CM2 SIMD: 14 GF, 64K? PE E. Brooks: "Atack of Killer Micros". Intel Touchstone Delta,  Multicomputer w/512 C @ Caltech. Linpack Benchmark.  Top500 listing. Begin scalable multicomputer era. CM5 Linpack 60  GF. Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel: 124Gflops.   Beowulf: COTS scalability recipe. MPI-1 standard. Intel XP/S 140 Pargon, Sandia 143 GF. Fujitsu National Wind Tunnel: 170 Gflops.   Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel: 170 Gflops.   Cray 64 GF, 32 P, T-90 ends monomemory era. ASCI: Accel Strat. Comp. Init for  scaling. Hitachi SR 2201 U. Toiy. 220 GF.  CP-PACs U. of Tscukba 368 GF Intel ASCI Red, Sandia: 1.06, 1.45 TF pk, 7.2 Kproc (intel). Intel ASCI Red, Sandia: 1.06, 1.45 TF pk, 7.2 Kproc (intel). Intel ASCI Red, Sandia: 1.06, 1.45 TF pk, 7.2 Kproc (intel). Intel ASCI Red, Sandia: 1.06, 1.45 TF pk, 7.2 Kproc (intel). ASCI White LLNL 7.2 PF. RLX "blade" intro. ASCI White LLNL 7.2 PF. NEC Earth Simulator: 41 TF. NEC Earth Simulator: 41 TF. NEC Earth Simulator: 41 TF. IBM Bluegene/L: 70 TF, 131 Kproc LLNL. IBM Bluegene: 102 TF, 131 Kproc LLNL. IBM Bluegene: 280 TF, 131 Kproc LLNL. IBM Bluegene: 478 TF, 131 Kproc LLNL. IBM BlueGene aka Roderunner @ Sandia 1.026 PF 122K PowerCell cores. BM BlueGene aka Roderunner @ Sandia. Cray Jaguar 1.8 TF. Cray Jaguar 1.8 TF.. Tiaanhe 1 Intel 2.6 PF. Graph500 benchmark. Fujitsu Riken K 10.5 PF IBM Sequoia PowerPC 16.3 PF. Cray Titan 17.6 PF 122K // with CPU/GPU.  Green500 Benchmark. China Tianhrne2, 3.1 M cores, 54 PF pk. Tianhe 2. Tianh 2, 14 84
Personal Computers: Workstations, PCs, game, tablets, players, phones, wearables. Computers at work, at home, at play , to entertain, and in the pocket for computation, record keeping & communication!  ??? Lines:  on and in body.   Napier's Bones: Pocket multiplication (1615). Gunter , Oughtred scales (1620) Airthmometer manufactured (1820). .Circular Rule. Baldwin calculator. Millionaire (1893).         BTL Complex Number Calclator remote Teletype use.         Bush: As We May Think - Memex. ENIAC: 5 Kops, 18K vaccum tubes. Curta Model 1 Handheld         EDSAC: OXO game.     Sign up & use. Bendix G-15 (ACE derived).  LGP-30. MIT (Lincoln Lab): TX-0 (transistor)     IBM 1620 DEC PDP-1. MIT CTSS Each of us share an IBM 7090. LINC first PC, with file system. PDP-1: Spacewar (Russell et al).  Sketchpad (Sutherland). GM DAC-1. Cassette tape Friden desk calculator (transistor). IBM: APL. Berkeley: Timesharing SDS 930. Dartmouth TSS BASIC . Rand: JOSS on Johniac. DEC: PDP-6 Timesharing =>TOPS-10. CDC SCOPE. EXEC 8. Olivetti: Programma 101. Multics. BOS/360. TOS/360. OS/360. DOS/360. LOGO (Papert). CP/CMS. Michigan TS. TSS/360. HP 9100 Desktop.   UNIX first edition programmer's manual Bowmar Brain hand held calculator. DEC OS/8 personal computing on PDP-8. Kenbak-1 for personal use. HP 35. Atari Pong. Magnavox Odyssey Game (analog). Dungeons, Zork, Crime. WYSIWYG.  Micral PC (8008). Scelbi 8H. RT-11 for DEC PDP-11 personal computing. HP 65 Programmable Calc. Xerox PARC: Alto & Ethernet.  MITS Altair 8800. Microsoft BASIC delivered ?? IBM: 5100. DR (Kildall): CP/M for 8080/Z80.  Xerox: STAR. Apple: model 1. Apple II. Commodore Pet. TRS-80 (Tandy  Radio Shack). Atari Video Comp. Sys. TI Speak & Spell. Shughart: 5-1/4" disk. Sinclair ZX80. CD. Atari 400 (game), 800 (home(. Symbolics & LISP Machines Inc: build LISP Machines through 1989 BBC Micro.Apollo DN-100 & token ring. IBM PC. Xerox Star. MS-DOS. Sony: 3-1/2" Floppy. Osborne 1 (portable). Commodore 64 22M. IBM PC. Kaypro, SUN 1. CD ROMs. Pacman. Lotus 1-2-3. MIDI music interface. Apple Lisa. Compaq: ship as PC clone. Silicon Graphics: Iris.  Apple Macintosh. IBM PC/AT. Sony 3.5" floppy. Commodore: Amiga. Pixar. CD/ROM Compaq uses 386. Apple: Hypercard. Sun SPARC Workstation. IBM PS/2. Microsoft: Windows 3, Excel, Word. NeXT (Jobs' workstation). Maxis: SimCity Nintendo GameBoy.Windows 3.1.  Go: PenPoint. 3-1/2" Diskette.   Mosaic Browser release UofI NCSA. Apple: Newton w/50K sales. Casio Zoomer. Doom. Windows NT. Sony PlayStation. Palm: Pilot PDA I. Microsoft: Windows 95.  First Wiki Palm Pilot s. Windows CE.   Rio Digital Audio Player (DAP) Creative Labs Nomad DAP. BlackBerry: pocket email service. iRiver Player DAP. Microsoft: XP. Apple: iPod plaform. BodyMedia on body band for fitnss. Microsoft: Xbox. Treo: phones & PDAs. Microsoft Tablet PC.     YouTube. Sony Reader. Microsoft: Vista. Nintendo : Wii with gesture input. 100 millionth iPod. iPhone intro 6/07.  Android O/S. Netbooks PC intros. iOS SDK. Android Smartphone 10/08. Fitbit counts steps for uploading. Windows 7. iPad 3/10. Microsoft: Xbox Kinect (voice, gestures). iPad 2. Android tablets. iPad 3, 4. iPad Mini 1. Windows 8 OS with dual tablet & desktop UI's. Microsoft Windows  8.1. Microsoft Xbox One.     47 106
Transduction technology aka I/O: interfaces to people and "things" …changing bits displays, pens, mouse, card devices, biometrics, handwriting, speech, graphical user interface… any and all between computers and people or other info processors. User interfaces: audio, visual, haptic, etc. Guttenberg (1440). Sholes Typewriter (1874).  Remington Model 1. Baudot code, Teletype HP: Audio osciallator for Disney's Fantasia. BTL Remote access; CSIRAC Computer plays music Doug Ross: direct keyboard input. MIT Lincoln Lab: Display and light pen Max Mathews Music Compiler plays on 704. Teletype ASR 33: 10 char/sec. Weitbrecht Modem Acoustic Coupler modem. Teletype 35: 30 char/sec. Engelbart: FJCC "Mother of All Demos" on SDS 940. Carterphone decision allowing  connection to AT&T (Bell) network. DEC: VT05 ASCI CRT, Engelbart: Mouse Patent IBM 3270 Xerox PARC: Shoup-Superpaint. TI Silent 700 thermal paper, acoustic coupler. Xerox Laser Printer. TI: Speak & Spell MIDI Standard. Microft: Word. Adobe: Postscript. Adobe. Aldus: PageMaker. Adobe: Illustrator. Pixare Adobe: Photoshop CMU VuMan 1. Video Toaster editing. Terminator 2: Judgement day.  Wearable computer with eyetap and twiddler keyboard (Thad Starner). MIT Media lab (Steve Mann, et al) build Souisveillance devices. Napster for music sharing. Kindle 11/07 book reader. Siri-iPhone intro for natural language input. Google Glass enables Extreme Lifelogging & direct interaction UI; iPhone 6+. Microsoft Cortana nat. lang. input. iWatch. 31
MAINFRAMES aks Business Computers:  record keeping, transaction processing, timesharing, databases, and cloud computing Record keeping: cave drawings, paper, printing, books, card control, to magnetic tape & disks. Search, databases, TPC, General ledgers, order entry, APACHE, 4 Lines: Record keeping, Transaction Process, Databases, Web services Papyrus. 3000 BC: Cuniform records indicate transactions.  Codex replace Paypyrus rolls. Simpson, Data-processing practice (1755). Table of products (1781) Comptometer (1886). Burroughs Adding machines. Hollerith: Census (1890), Tabulating Machine Co. (1896). BTM, Powers Samos, Rem Rand formed. Card perforator & sorter (1895). LEO ( EDSAC based) card, paper tape, introduced. UNIVAC I, decimal, delay line, mag tape for bulk store, accepted.  ERA 1101.  IBM 702 IBM 705 IBM 305 Ramac, 5 MB disk. Burroughs 205,220. IBM 7070 (decimal). ERMA introduced. IBM 1401 replaces card tabulation equipment. Quicksort. COBOL60. IBM 074. Burroughs B5000, 5500 (64). IBM 1301, IBM 7080. 1311 removable disk. IBM 7010 (1400-series). IBM 360 for Science & Commercial announce 4/6. Burroughs B-5500. Bachman: IDS Networked database.  Tymshare timesharing SDS 940. RCA Spectra 70 (IBM 360 compatible). SABRE Reservations system on line (dual 7090).  IBM OS/360 ship. SDS 940 Time-Sharing System based on Berkeley TSS. NYSE computer trade. ATM Enfield install. IBM 1360 Terabit  Photo Store. IBM TR: E F Codd relational database. IBM 360/85 (cache). IBM System/370 IBM: 8" Floppy. IBM 370 Universal Product Code: ?? Tandem Fault-Tolerant. Amdahl: 470/6 delivered to establish the IBM plug compatible industry. Tandem: 16 Fault-Tolerant for trans proc. Honeywell: Relational dbase? DEC VT100 ASCI CRT.  Shugart: 5-1/4" Floppy. DEC: VMS Clusters. Stratus: redundant, non-stop. Sequent: Balance "multi". IBM System/390 SQL Standard. Google. IBM Z Series 900 (rename 64 bit 360). Apache Web Server 2. IBM Z9 into. Amazon Web Services: Elastic Cloud, EC2. Simple Storage Service, S3. Microsoft Azure. 360 50th Anniversary  IBM Z13. 37
Artificial Intelligence technology:  chatbots, expert systems, robots, Turing test Turing: On Computable Numbers… Turing: Computing Machinery and Intelligence Edmund Berkeley: Squee nut finding squirrel. MIT Servomechanisms: Auto Programmed Tool. UNIMATE Industrial Robot: delivered.  Racho Arm (6 degrees). DENDRAL expert system: Feigenbaum-Lederberg Weizenbaum: ELIZA Minsky: Tenacle Arm. Scheinman Arm. SRI: Skaky mobile robot. Silver Arm: Kurzweil Reading Machine. Stanford Cart. Japan establishes Fifth Generation AI Project. DARPA SCI Strat Comp Init. IBM BlueGene becomes world chess champion. iRobot: Roomba. In Touch Health telerobot. DARPA Grand Challenge: CMU. DARPA Autonomous Vehicle Prize, Stanford. DARPA Urban Challenge: CMU. 3D Robotics Autopilot. IBM Watson wins Jeopardy. Rethink Robotics: Baxter. 25
NETWORKING aka Communication computers  incl. Wireless Sensor Networks, machine to machine.                       Social Networking Communication and Networks: Alphabets, signaling (smoke signals,...telegraphy),  message switching, packet switching, ARPA net, internet, WWW, wireless telephony, Wi-Fi. 3 lines: telephony, data networks, and TV. Optical Semaphore (1700). Henry: Telegraph (1831). Telegraph& Morse code (1837); paper tape telegraph. Daguerre fax (1839). Transatlantic Cable proposal. Shannon: The Mathematical Theory of Communication. ATT: Dataphone (1st commercial modem) Baran: Presentation on Survivable Nets. Kleinrock: Thesis Proposal Info Flow in Large Comm. Nets. Licklider: Intergalactic Network. ASCII. Baran: RAND "On Distributed Comm". Kleinrock: Comm. Nets: Message Flow & Delay. IBM SABRE for airline reservations. Davies @NPL: Names "Packet Switching". Marill-Roberts: TX-2 to Q-32 Connection. NYSE: basic trading functions. SRI: Acoustic Modem. ARPAnet Plan (Roberts) AT&T:56 Kbps.  BBN: ARPAnet contract win. ARPAnet: UCLA-SRI. Establish Network Working Group. RS-232 protocol. ATM. Tomlinson: Email. Wozniak: Blue Box. TCP paper. Internet gateway arch (Cerf, Kahn). Metcalfe: Ethernet, Xerox PARC. Telnet: service intro (Roberts). Multinetwork demo. Data Encryption Standard. USENET USENET. Prestel (UK). First Worm (Shoch). Multi-user domain game (Dungeon). 802.3 Ethernet std. TCP/IP established.  Minitel (France).  ARPANET: TCP/IP switchover. DNS introduced. Motorola DynaTAC. NSFNET connects 5 supercomputer centers. WELL. TCP/IP established. NSFNet: 56Kb. NSF T1 Backbone. UUNET. AT&T Transatlantic Fiber. NSFNET: T1 backbone.  Morris' worm floods the network. MCI, CompuServe: email. WWW. Archie, Gopher, WAIS services. NSF backbone: T3. one TB/month, 100 countries, 600Khosts, 5K networks. NSF accepts firms. PGP for email. WWW. One Million hosts. Internet Society. Yahoo founded. Netscape.  100 Mbps Ethernet. Apache Web Server 1. founded to capture WWW. Wi-Fi standard. 1 Gbps Ethernet. Dust aka Wireless Sensor Nets proposal & RF breadboard. 802.11: 11 Mbps Berkeley Mote. Ember founded WSN. Dust Networks: WSN. Friendster. LinkedIn. 10 Gbps Ethernet. 802.11: 54 Mpbs. MySpace Facebook.  Twitter. AWS SDK: Amazon Elastic Cloud, EC2 & Storage. Instagram. Snapchart. 31 74
Books, ideas, magazines, movements, movies, newspapers, paradigms, predictions, … society Steam Engine (1767).  Volta: Battery (1800). Incandescent bulb 1879). Luddites (1811). Grace Hopper finds "bug" at Harvard MkI.  Moore Summer School on computer. IEEE traces origins of computer society to Prof. Group on Electronic Computers. Assoc for Comp. Machinery (ACM) Cybernetics (Norbert Weiner). Watson: "all computation electronic in a decade". Edmund Berkeley. "Giant Brains". UNIVAC calls the election for Eisenhower. Turing suicide.  IBM SHARE (user's group). Datamation Magazine. ACM Formed. Desk Set. Kilby patent (wired chip interconnect) Xerox Copier. ARPA IPTO: Licklider. Nelson:  Hypertext mention. Eckert & Mauchly: patent. 2001: A Space Odyssey. IEEE Computer Society. Eckert & Mauchly: patent invalid. Brooks, The mythical man month. Byte Magazine. Microsoft started. Mead Conway" Introduction to VLSI Systems". Time: Computer is Man of the Year. Camcorder. Gibson: Neuromance => Cyberspace. Ken Wildon: Computation is the 3rd Paradigm of Science. Gordon Bell Prize established. Gustafson's Law of scalable computing. NSF Report: “Visualization in Scientific Computing”. Pixar: "Tin Toy" Oscar. Wired Magazine V 1. Pixar: Toy Story, first animated feature film DVD intro Internet of Things term introduced by Kevin Ashton. Wikipedia started. Jim Gray: Data is the 4th Paradigm of Science. 34
Year B.C.-1600 1600-1800 1800-1890 1890-1945 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 0
Copyright 2015 Gordon Bell Companies Arithmometer (1886) => Burroughs  => Unisys (1986) C-T-R founded  (1911) => IBM (1924) Hewlett-Packard EMCC formed. Eckert-Mauchly Computer Co. (UNIVAC, Div. of Remington Rand) Heinz Nixdorf Computer  Co.  Schockley Semi Lab. Fairchild Semiconductor. Control Data Corp.. (CDC). Digital Equip. Corp (DEC=>Compaq (1998) =>HP (2002). Scientific Data Systems (SDS) => Xerox Data Sys (1969-1975). Tandy aka Radio Shack. Thinking Machines Corp. Commodore Bus. Machines Intel. Evans & Sutherland. AMD. Xerox Palo Alto Res Center (PARC). Amdahl formed. RCA computer exit. IMSAI Microsoft. Apple Inc. Oracle. Brounderbund Compaq=> HP (2002). Sun Microsystems => Oracle (2010). Sybase. Lucas film animation group(1979) =>Pixar. Yahoo. Fujitsu acquires Amdahl. Google. MySpace. Skype =>Microsoft (2003). LinkedIn. Facebook.  YouTube. Twitter. Nest Lab (Home). 6 38
Computer Structures 1
5 - DEC PDP-8 (programmed data processor)
6 - Whirlwind
7 - Apollo Guidance Computer
8 - UNIVAC (1951)
9 - Pegasus
11 - Pilot ACE
12 - ZEBRA
13 - Univac Scientific 1103A
14 - MIDAC
15 - Soviet Strela (Arrow)
16 - LGP-30 and LGP-21
17 - IBM 650
18 - IBM 1401
19 - OLIVETTI programma 101 desk calculator
20 - HP Model 9100A computing calculator
21/22 - Burroughs B 5000 system
23 - Atlas
25 - DEC 338 display processor
26 - NOVA
32 - EULER on IBM system/360 Model 30
33 - IBM 1800
34 - Stretch
35 - PILOT, the NBS multicomputer system (Nat'l Bureau of Standards)
36 - Burroughs D825
38 - RW-400 Data System (also called the AN/FSQ-27)  
39 - Control Data 6600
41 - IBM 7094 I, II
42 - SDS 910-9300 Series
43/44 - IBM System/360
Computer Structures 2
7 - Manchester Mark I
8/15/46 - PDP-8
9 - B 5000 System
10 - Atlas
12 - IBM System/360 Model 30
13 - AM2900 Family - Am2901/2909
14 - Am2903/2910
16 - Burroughs B6500/B7500
17 - ICL 2900 series
18 - IBM System/360 Model 91
20 - Illiac IV
22 - C.mmp/Hydra
23 - Pluribus
24 - ARPA Computer Network
26 - Ethernet
27 - STAR
29 - Tandem 16
31 - HP 9845A
32 - IBM System/38
33 - Alto
34 - TMS 1000/1200
35 - PIC1650
37 - Intel 8008 to 8086 (8008, 8080, 8085, 8086)
38/39/47 - DEC PDP-11
40 - System/360
41 - System/360
42 - VAX-11/780 (Virtual Address Extension)
43 - Control Data 6600
44 - Cray 1
45 - TI ASC
48 - HP model 9100A
49 - HP 9810/20/30
50 - HP Calculator
51 - IBM system/370
52 - IBM system/360, system 370, 3030, 4300