Gordon Bell: Books, Computers, Interviews, Papers, Patents, Projects, Videos

Computer systems and major technical projects:

1.      PDP-1 (architecture and implementation of i/o system, including a telegraph message switching system and the design of the first UART-- Universal Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter for data transmission );

2.      PDP-4 (predecessor of PDP-7, -9, and -15) architecture, logical design and implementation;

3.      PDP-5 (predecessor of PDP-8 series) architecture with Alan Kotok; manager of Computer Design;

4.      PDP-6 (predecessor of DEC System 10) computer and operating system for first commercial time sharing computer, architecture, logical design, and implementation;

5.      TSS/8 (timesharing system based on PDP-8 co-design);

6.      PDP-16 (Register Transfer Module - RTM) architect;

7.      PDP-11 consultant on structure (including invention of the Unibus), implementation and invention of the extension of general registers as used in the PDP-11 for architecture described in Computer Structures;

8.      Automated Design research resulting in first synthesis of systems from high level descriptions by Mario Barbacci

9.      C.mmp-a multi-mini-processor computer (Wulf and Bell, 1972) and Cm*, member-design group at Carnegie-Mellon University;

10.  PDP-11 subsequent models: consulted on or was indirectly responsible for implementations;

11.  VAX-11 Architecture and Design (1975) leader, headed Digital's R & D that was responsible for implementation of VAX line;

12.  Digital VAX Computing Strategy and Environment, Architecture team leader. Contributed to architecture of Ethernet, DECnet, and VAX Clusters (1978-1983);

13.  Encore Multimax, (an early "multi"), architectural team member; Chief Technical Officer. Encore Ultramax (1000 mips, 100 processor, "multi"), architectural concept; operating 1988.

14.  Ardent Titan Graphics Supercomputer, member of architecture team. Vice President, Engineering.

15.  Established and led NSF's Computers and Information Science and Engineering(CISE) Directorate.

16.  Leader of National Research and Education Network (NREN) Task Force. Member of the FCCSET for computing. NREN, now NII/GII, led to FCCSET's Federal, High Performance Computing and Communications Initiative that was established by Congress in 1991.

17.  Established The Gordon Bell Prize in 1987 for advances in parallelism to stimulate parallel processing. The prize is administered by the ACM and given each year at the Supercomputing conference.

18.  Co-founder, 1979, The Computer Museum in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1995 the collection from the museum was moved to Silicon Valley as a division that became the basis of the Computer History Museum.

19.  Co-inventor of the Bell-Mason Diagnostic model for understanding high tech ventures. See the Bell-Mason Group.

20.  Contributed to computer system designs at Intel, and Sun Microsystems.

21.  Founding member, 1995, Computer History Museum, 1401 Shoreline Avenue, Mountain View, CA.

22.  Telpresence, 1995-2000. This resulted in the discovery and demonstration of Telepresentations—the capability to present to a distributed audience and time shift through the presentation capture. The demonstration of this was for ACM97, the 50th Anniversary of the ACM Conference, San Jose, CA. 1997.

23.  Chair of the Petascale Metrics Panel, a subcommittee of the Department of Energy Office of Science Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee. The panel submitted their final report, Petascale Metrics Report , to the Department of Energy Under Secretary of Science April 2007.

24.  MyLifeBits Project: Member, design team of three that created a system for a “personal store of everything” along the lines suggested by Vannevar Bush’s c1945 paper on Memex “As We May Think”.


1.      Multistable Circuit, #3,275,848, 9/27/66, C. G. Bell (PDP-4,5);

2.      Digital Computing System, #3,376,554, 4/2/68, C. G. Bell, A. Kotok (PDP-6);

3.      Apparatus for Performing Character Operations, #3,401,375. 9/10/68. C. G. Bell, A. Kotok (PDP-6);

4.      Multiple Configuration Data Processing System, #141,282, 5/7/71, filed but not issued;

5.      Register Transfer Modules, C. G. Bell, John Eggert, Robert Van Naarden, Peter Williams (PDP-16);

6.      Homogeneous Memory for Digital Computer Systems, #188084, C. G. Bell, not assigned, filed 10-12-71 (for all machines);

7.      Branching Circuit for Microprogram Controlled Central Processor Unit, C. G. Bell, John E. Buzynski, Charles H. Kaman, James F. O'Loughlin, #3,900,835, 8/19/75.


(Please note: These book files are in PDF format and require Acrobat 5 or later to view. They are very large files which may take minutes to download.)

1.      Bell C. G., A. Newell, COMPUTER STRUCTURES: READINGS AND EXAMPLES, McGraw-Hill, 1971


3.      Barbacci, M.R., Bell, C.G. Newell, ISP; A LANGUAGE TO DESCRIBE INSTRUCTIONS SETS AND OTHER DIGITAL SYSTEMS, Carnegie-Mellon University, Dept. of Computer Science, 1972

4.      Bell, C. G., J. Bell, MINICOMPUTER SOFTWARE, Proceedings of the IFIP Conference on Software and Minicomputers, Co-editors, North-Holland Publishing Company, 1976

5.      Bell, C. G., C. Mudge, J. McNamara, COMPUTER ENGINEERING, Digital Press 1978

6.      Siewiorek, D., C. G. Bell, A. Newell, COMPUTER STRUCTURES; PRINCIPLES AND EXAMPLES, McGraw-Hill, 1982

7.      Bell, C. Gordon, John E. McNamara, HIGH TECH VENTURES: THE GUIDE TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS, Addison-Wesley, 1991.

8.      Bell, Gordon, Gemmell, Jim, Total Recall: HOW THE E-MEMORY REVOLUTION WILL CHANGE EVERYTHING, Dutton, 2009.

9.      Bell, Gordon, Gemmell, Jim, Your Life, Uploaded: The Digital Way to Better Memory, Health, and Productivity, Plume Book, 2010.

Publications (Papers, Conference Proceedings, and Book Chapters)

1.      Bell, C. and R. C. Brigham, "Translation Routine for the Deuce Computer,"; British Computer Society Journal (July 1959).

2.      Bell, C., H. Fujisaki, J. M. Heinz, K. N. Stevens and A. S. House, "Reduction of Speech Spectra by Analysis-by-Synthesis Techniques,";
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 33 (12), pp. 1725-1736 (1961).

3.      Bell, C., J. Leng, J. A. Quarrington and P. K. Patwardham, "A Time-Shared Computer for Real-Time Information Processing," Instrumentation Techniques in Nuclear Pulse Analysis, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D. C. Publication 1184, Report #40, (1964).

4.      Bell, C. G. “Communications: Method & Message”, Carnegie-Mellon Review, Number 12, July 1967, pp 6-15.

5.      Bell, C., "Fundamentals of Time Shared Computers" , Computer Design  vol. 7, nos. 2 and 3,  pp. 44-59 and pp. 28-46 (February  and March 1968).

6.      Bell, C. G. COSINE Committee of the Commission on Engineering Education.  “Computer Science in Electrical Engineering,” IEEE Spectrum, March 1968.

7.      Van de Goor, A. and C. G. Bell, "A Control Unit for a DEC PDP-8 Computer and a Burroughs Disk," IEEE Computer Group Conference, June 1969, published in IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-18, No. 11 (November 1969).

8.      Van de Goor, A., Don Witcraft and C. G. Bell, "Design and Behavior of TSS/8, A PDP-8 Based Time-Sharing System," IEEE Computer Group Conference, June 1969, published in IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-18, No. 11 (November 1969).

9.      Bell, C. G., A. Habermann, J. McCredie, R. Rutledge and W. Wulf, "Computer Networks",  Computer 5 (3), pp. 13-23 (September/October 1970).

10.  Bell, C. G. and A. Newell, "The PMS and ISP Descriptive Systems for Computer Structures," Proceedings of the 1970 Sprint Joint Computer Conference, pp. 351-374 (1970).

11.  Bell, C. G., R. Cady, H. McFarland, B. Delagi, J. O'Laughlin, R. Noonan and W. Wulf, "A New Architecture for Mini-Computers -- The DEC PDP-11, Sprint Joint Computer Conference, pp. 657-675 (1970).

12.  Bell, C. G., "Minicomputer Architecture, Description and Design," Proceedings of the IEEE Convention (March 1971).

13.  Bell, C. G. and J. W. McCredie, "The Impact of Minicomputers on Simulation," Overview and co-editor of a special issue of Simulation, 16, No. 3, pp. 98-101 (March 1971).

14.  Bell, C. G., J. Grason, S. Mega, R. Van Naarden, P. Williams.  “Register Transfer Modules (RTM)* for Higher Level Digital System Design,” in the Proceedings of Purdue 1971 Symposium on Applications of Computers to Electrical Engineering, April 26-29, 1971.

15.  Bell, C. G. and J. Grason, "The Register Transfer Module Design Concept," Computer Design, pp. 87-94 (May 1971).

16.  Coates, C. L., Jr., B. Arden, T. C. Bartee, C. G. Bell, F. F. Kuo, E. J. McCluskey, W. H. Surber, Jr., and M. E. van Valkenburg, "An Undergraduate Computer Engineering Option for Electrical Engineering,"  Proceedings of IEEE (59), No. 6, pp. 854-860 (June 1971).  See also COSINE Report, January 1970.

17.  Bell, C. G. and J. Grason, "Comparative Hardware-Software Design Study Using DEC Register Transfer Modules (RTM),"  Proceedings IEEE Computer Conference, Boston (September 1971).

18.  Bell, C. G., D. R. Reddy, C. Pierson and B. Rosen, "A High Performance Programmed Remote Display Terminal,"  Proceedings IEEE Computer Conference, Boston (September 1971).

19.  Bell, C. Gordon and John W. McCredie.  “Computer Evaluation and Selection: A Case Study and a Methodology,” Proceedings Spring Joint Computer Conference, September 30, 1971.

20.  Bell, C. G. and A. Newell, "Possibilities for Computer Structures 1971," Proceedings Fall Joint Computer Conference, (1971).

21.  Bell, C. Gordon and David Cassasent“Implementation of a Buffer Memory in Minicomputers,” Computer Design, November 1971.

22.  Bell, C. G., R. Chen and S. Rege, "The Effect of Technology on Near Term Computer Structures," Computer 2 (5) 29-38 (March/April 1972).

23.  Bell, C. G., J. Eggert, J. Grason and P. Williams, "The Description and Use of Register Transfer Modules (RTMs)," IEEE Transactions on Computers (May 1972).

24.  Bell, C. G. and P. Freeman, "C.ai--A Computer Architecture of AI Research," Fall Joint Computer Conference Proceedings, (1972)

25.  Wulf, W. A., and C. G. Bell, "C.mmp--A Multi-mini-processor", Fall Joint Computer Conference Proceedings, pp 765-777 (1972).

26.  Bell C. G., L. Gale, C. Kaman.  “Some Effects of LSI on Minicomputers,” Technical Sessions, 150-Nerem 72, 1972.

27.  Bell, C. G., R. C. Chen, S. H. Fuller, J. Grason, S. Rege, and D. P. Siewiorek, "The Architecture and Applications of Computer Modules:  A Set of Components for Digital Systems Design," COMPCON (February 1973).

28.  Barbacci, Bell, Siewiorek, "PMS:  A Notation to Describe a Computer's Structures and ISP:  A Notation to Describe a Computer's Instruction Sets,"  Computer, March 1973.

29.  Bell, James; David Cassasent, Gordon Bell, "An Investigation of Cache Organizations," IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-23, No. 4, pp. 346-351 (April 1974).

30.  Grason, John, John Eggert, and C. Gordon Bell, "The Commercialization of Register Transfer Modules (RTMS),"  Computer (October 1973).

31.  Bell, C. G., and C. Kaman, "The Microprocessor -- Another Member of the Mini(mal) Computer Family," IEEE Intercon 1974  (March 1974).

32.  Bell, C. G., "More Power by Networking," IEEE Spectrum  (February 1974).

33.  Bell, G., W. Strecker, "Computer Structures:  What Have We Learned from the PDP-11"  IEEE Computer Conference Proceedings, Florida (November 1975).

34.  Rossman, George E., Michael J. Flynn, Samuel H. Fuller, C. Gordon Bell, Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., Herbert Hellerman, "A Course of Study in Computer Hardware Architecture,"  Computer (December 1975).

35.  Bell, C. G., S. H. Fuller, C. H. Kaman, and V. R. Lesser, "The Effects of Emerging Technology and Emulation Requirements on Microprogramming",  IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. C-25, No. 10, pp. 44-63 (October 1976).

36.  Bell, C. G., and A. Knowles, “Standalone Computers and Their Interaction with Networks”, IEEE Compcon, December 1976, pp1-8.

37.  Bell, C. G. “What Have We Learned from the PDP-11?”, Perspectives on Computer Science: From the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Computer Science Department, Carnegie-Mellon University, Academic Press, New York, NY, pp 7-38.

38.  Bell, C. G., A. Kotok, T. N. Hastings, and R. Hill, “The Evolution of the DECsystem 10,”  Communications of the ACM, Vol. 21, No. 1, January 1978, pp 44-62.

39.  Bell, C. Gordon, “Innovation In Japan – A Lesson For Us?, The Year – Thayer School of Engineering, October 1979, Vol. 7, pp 78-79.

40.  Bell, C. G., "Distributed Processing and Limits to its Growth", Management of Distributed Data Processing, North-Holland Publishing Company (1982).

41.  Bell, C. G., "Standards Can Help Us", Computer (17) no. 6 (June 1984).

42.  Bell, C. G., "The Mini and Micro Industries", Computer (17) no. 10, pp. 14-30 (October 1984).

43.  Bell, C. G., "Multis:  A New Class of Multiprocessor Computers", Science, Vol. 228, pp. 462-467 (April 26, 1985).

44.  Bell, C. G., H. B. Burkhardt III, S. Emmerich, A. Anzelmo, R. Moore, D. Schanin, I. Nassi, C. Rupp, "The Encore Continuum:  A Complete Distributed Workstation Multiprocessor Computing Environment", AFIPS Conference Proceedings, Vol. 54 (July 1985).

45.  Bell, C. G., S. Emmerich, I. Durham, D. P. Siewiorek, A. Wilson, "Computer Structures are Changing:  Will UNIX Change with them?"  Usenix Conference (Summer 1985).

46.  Bell, C. G., H. B. Burkhardt III, S. Emmerich, A. Anzelmo, R. Moore, I. Nassi, C. Rupp, "The Encore Continuum:  A Microprocessor Based Multiprocessor and Distributed Workstation Computing Environment", Wescon/85 (November 21, 1985).

47.  Bell, C. G.,  "Challenges in Generating the Next Computer Generation", in Cohabiting With Computers, Columbia 10th Anniversary, William Kaufmann, Palo Alto, 1985.

48.  Bell, C. G., "A Surge for Solid State", IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp 71-74, (April 1986).

49.  Bell, G.,  "RISC: Back to the Future?",   Datamation,  pp 96-108 (June 1, 1986).

50.  Nelson, D. L., C. G. Bell “The Evolution of Workstations”,  IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine, July 1986, pp 12-15.

51.  Bell, C. G., Chairman, "A  Report to the Office of Science and Technology Policy on Computer Networks to Support Research in the U. S.", Proposal for NREN (National Research and Education Network aka “the Internet”) by the Federal Coordinating Council on Science and Technology Committee on Computing (November 1987).

52.  Executive Office of the President Office of Science and Technology Policy, Committee Member, "A Research and Development Strategy for High Performance Computing" (Nov. 20, 1987). 

53.  Bell, C. G., "Toward a History of (Personal) Workstations", ACM Conference on the History of Personal Workstations, January 9, 1986, published in Goldberg, A., A History of Personal Workstations, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. (1988).

54.  Bell, C. G., "Gordon Bell Calls for A National Research Network", IEEE Spectrum,Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 54-57 (February 1988).

55.  Bell, G., "Steps Toward a National Research Telecommunications Network", Library Hi Tech, Issue 21, pp 33-36.

56.  Bell, G., "New Tools For A New Age", Engineering Tools, February 1988, p119.

57.  Bell, C. G., G.S. Miranker, J.J. Rubinstein , "Supercomputing for One",   IEEE Spectrum  Vol. 25, No. 4, pp 46-50 (April 1988).

58.  Bell, G., "Future High Performance Scientific Computers", Supercomputing Review,  pp 20-21 (Inaugural Issue 1988).

59.  Bell, G., "The Fewer Engineers Per Project, the Better", IEEE Spectrum, February 1989, Vol. 26, No. 2, p 22.

60.  Bell, G. and W. S. Worley, "A New Computer Class: The Graphics Supercomputer", (Invited Paper) Information Processing  89,  IFIP Conference Proceedings, August 1989.

61.  Bell, G., "The Future of High Performance Computers in Science and Engineering",  Communications of the ACM, Vol 32, No. 9, September 1989, pp 1091-1101.

62.  Bell, G., and G. Miranker, "Comments on Using the Livermore Loops and Harmonic Mean to Measure the Basic Performance of Two Graphics Supercomputers", Vector Register, Vol 3, No. 1, October 1989, pp 7-10.

63.  Bell, G., "Technical Computing Alternatives: Supercomputers to Ordinary Computers",   Supercomputing Review, Volume 2, No. 12, December 1989, pp 21-24.

64.  Bell, G. and Miranker, G., "Shopping for Supercomputers",   Datamation, Vol 36, No 20, October 15, 1990, pp 76-80.

65.  Bell, G. "Three Decades of Multiprocessors",  Richard Rashid, editor CMU Computer Science: A 25th Anniversary Commemorative
ACM Press, Addison-Wesley Publishing, Reading, Mass. 1991, pp 3-27.

66.  Bell, C.G., and Mason, H. B., "A Method to Diagnose High Tech Ventures",
Proc. of Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology,  Portland, Oregon, Oct. 1991,  pp 621-624.

67.  Bell, G., "Ultracomputers: A Teraflop Before Its Time",   Science, Vol. 256, (April 3, 1992), p64.

68.  Bell, G., "Ultracomputers: A Teraflop Before Its Time",  Communications of the ACM, Vol. 35, No. 8, August 1992, pp 27-45.

69.  Bell, G., "Massively Parallel Computers: Why Not Parallel Computers for the Masses?",  The Fourth Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computers, '92", October 1992, McLean VA, IEEE Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp 292-297.

70.  Bell, C.G., and McNamara, J.E., "The Technology Balance Sheet",   IEEE Management Review, Vol 21, No 1, Spring 1993, pp 4-15.  

71.  Bell, G., "Scalable Parallel Computers: Alternatives, Issues, and Challenges", International Journal of Parallel Programming, Vol. 22, No. 1, February 1994, pp 3-46.

72.  Bell, G. "Why there won't be apps: The problem with MPPs", IEEE Parallel and Distributed Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, Fall 1994, pp 5-6.

73.  Bell, G., "Just Say No to Uncle Sam", Upside, Vol VII, No. 7, July 1995, pp. 70-75.

74.  Bell, G., “1995 Observations on Supercomputing Alternatives: Did the MPP Bandwagon Lead to a Cul-de-Sac?”,  Communications of the ACM, Vol. 39, No. 3, March 1996, pp 11-15.

75.  Bell, G., “Great and Big Ideas in Computer Structures”,   chapter in Mind Matters: A Tribute to Allen Newell, 1996, pp 189-218.

76.  Bell, G. and J. Gemmell, “On-ramp Prospects for the Information Superhighway Dream”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 39, No. 7, July 1996, pp 55-61.

77.  Bell, G. “Many New Applications Will Emerge”, Special Issue on the 25th Anniversary of the Microprocessor, Microprocessor Report, Vol. 10. No. 10., August 5, 1996, pp 18-19.

78.  Bell, G. “The system-on-a-chip, Microsystems Computer Industry",   IEEE Micro, Vol. 16, No. 6, December 1996, p 52.

79.  Bell, G. “The Body Electric, Communications of the ACM Special Issue:  The Next 50 Years. Vol. 40, No. 2, February 1997, pp 31-32.

80.  Bell, G. and Gray, J. N. “The Revolution Yet to Happen” , Chapter in Beyond Calculation, edited by Peter J. Denning and Robert M. Metcalfe, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1997.

81.  Gemmell, J. and Bell, C.G., Noncollaborative Telepresentations Come of Age", Communications of the ACM Vol. 40, No. 4, April 1997, pp 79-89.

82.  Bell, G. “Beyond Moore’s Law” (Sidebar) IEEE Spectrum, June 1997, p56.

83.  Bell, G., “JERCIs: Save the World From PCs”, ACM NetWorker, July/August 1997, pp  9-12.

84.  Bell, G. and W. D. Strecker, “Retrospective on What Have We Learned from the PDP-11” Retrospective, 25 Years of the Internal Symposia on Computer Architecture, edited by S. Gurindar, ACM Press, 1998,  pp5-10 (original paper pp138-151).

85.  Bell, G., and C. van Ingen, “DSM Perspective: Another Point of View (Invited Paper)”, Special Issue of the IEEE Proceedings on Distributed Shared Memory Systems, Vol. 87, No. 3, March 1999, pp 412-417.

86.  Bell, G. "The Folly of Prediction: Six Laws", Chapter in Talking Back to the Machine, edited by Peter J. Denning, Copernicus, Division of Springer-Verlag, New York, 1999, pp 1-13.

87.  Bell, G. “Dear Appy, How Committed are you?”,   ACM Ubiquity. 21 February 2000.

88.  Bell, G. "A Personal Digital Store",  Communications of the ACM, Vol. 44, No. 1, January 2001, p86-91.

89.  Bell, G. and Gray, J. N. "Digital Immortality",  Communications of the ACM, Vol. 44, No. 3, March 2001, p28-30.

90.  Bell, G. and J. Gray; “What’s Next in High Performance Computing”,   Communications of the ACM, Vol. 45, No. 2, February 2002, pp 91-95.

91. Bell, G., and J. Gemmell, “A Call for the Home Media Network”,   Communications of the ACM, Vol. 45, No. 7, July 2002, pp 71-75.  

92. Gemmell, J., G. Bell, R. Lueder, S. Drucker, C. Wong, “MyLifeBits: Fulfilling the Memex Vision”,   ACM Multimedia '02, December 1-6, 2002, Juan-les-Pins, France, pp 235-238.

93. Bell, G. "Sink or Swim: A Diagnostic for Measuring Dysfunctional Organizations", ACM Queue, December-January, 2003/2004, pp 61-67.

94. Bell, G. "A Time and Place for Standards", ACM Queue, September, 2004, pp 67-74.

95. Bell, G. "Challenges in Using Lifetime Personal Information Stores, Abstract SIGIR", July2004, Sheffield, UK.

96. Bell, G. "A New Relevance for Multimedia When We Record Everything Personal  Abstract", Multimedia 2004. October 2004, New York.  

97. Cherry, Steven  "Total Recall", Article on MyLifeBits, IEEE Spectrum, November 2005.  

98. G. Bell and J. Gray, A. Szalay, "PetaScale Computational Systems", Computer, January 2006.  

99. Gemmell, J., Bell, G., Lueder, R., “MyLifeBits: A Personal Database for Everything”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 49, No. 1, January 2006, pp 89-95.

100. Thompson, Clive, "A Head for Detail", Article on MyLifeBits in Fast Company, November 2006

101. Bell, G., Gemmell, J. "A Digital Life", Scientific American, March 2007.  

102. Alec Wilkinson, “Remember This”, The New Yorker, 28 May 2007 issue. Interview of Bell and the MyLifeBits Project.

103. Jones, W. and J. Teevan, Ed. Personal Information Management. Chapter 6. Save Everything: Supporting Human Memory with a Personal Digital Lifetime Store, 2007.

104. Bell, G., “Bell’s Law for the Birth and Death of Computer Classes”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 51, No. 1, January 2008. See also Bell, G. “Bell’s Law”. Technical Report.  MSR-2007-TR-146 Bells Law.

105. Bell, G., Tony Hey, Alex Szalay, “Beyond the Data Deluge”, Science, Vol. 323, 6 March 2009, pp 1297-1298.

106. Bell, G. Foreword to “The Fourth Paradigm”, Hey, T., S Tansley, K. Tolle, editors. Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA. 2009

107. Bell, G., with D. P. Siewiorek, “The Book Computer Structures: Thoughts After 40 Years”, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol.33. No. 2. May 2011, pp 89-95.

108. Bell, Gordon, Out of a Closet: The Early Years of The Computer * Museum. Dedicated to Brian Randell on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday", Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 6875, Subseries: Theoretical Computer Science and General Issues", Jones, Cliff B.; Lloyd, John L. (Eds.), Nov. 2011. ISBN 978-3-642-24540-4.

109. Bell, C. Gordon STARS: The Rise and Fall of Minicomputers  IEEE Global History Network, posted 22 January 2013.

110. Bell, Gordon Moore’s Law evolved the PC industry; Bell’s Law disrupted it with players, phones, and tablets: New Platforms, tools, and services. Technical Report, MSR-TR-2014-2, January 4, 2004.

111. Bell, Gordon, Supercomputers, the Amazing Race.  A history of supercomputers: The Cray Monocomputer Era 1965-1995 and The Clusters, Multicomputer Era 1985-2010. Technical Report MSR-TR-2015-2, January 2015.

112. Bell, Gordon, Counting Every Heart Beat: Observation of a Quantified Selfie, Experience in understanding my own heart rate by observing a decade of pacemaker measurements and a year of daily wrist monitor measurements. Technical Report MSR-TR-2015-53, June 2015.

Editorials, Letters and Opinion Pieces

1.      Bell, G. “Computing History: A Personal and Industry View”, Creative Computing, January 1984.

2.      Bell, C. Gordon, Expert Opinion: “Minis and Mainframes,” Technology ’86, IEEE Spectrum, January 1986.

3.      Bell, C. Gordon, Guest Editorial, “The Future of Scientific Computing,” Computers in Science, Premiere Issue 1987, pp 4-6.

4.      Bell, G., "Parallel Processing Leads NSF Research Directions", (Interview), IEEE Software Magazine, July 1987, pp 102-104.

5.      Bell, G., "IEEE Software Launches Annual Gordon Bell Prize for Parallel Processing", IEEE Software Magazine, July 1987, p 103.

6.      Bell, Gordon, “Computer Architecture, The Era of the Microprocessor,”  Electronic Engineering Times Anniversary Issue, November 1987.

7.      Bell, G., "What Unix Needs for the 1990's" UNIX World  p152 (July 1988).

8.      Bell, Gordon, “Gordon Bell Unveils Model for Emerging Technologies: How to Predict a High-Tech Start-Up’s Success,” Management Education, American Electronics Association, September 1988, p 6.

9.      Leibowitz, Michael R., Strategies – Technology Transfer, “Does Military R & D Stimulate Commerce or the Pork Barrel?,Electronic Business, February 6, 1989, pp 54-58.

10.  Bell, C. Gordon, Book Review, “The Ultimate Entrepreneur: The Story of Ken Olsen and Digital Equipment Corporation,” IEEE Spectrum, March 1989, pp 14-15.

11.  Bell, Gordon, “The Downsizing of IBM and DEC,” Ideas for the 1990’s, Fortune, March 26, 1990, p 76.

12.  Bell, Gordon, “He Who Has the Most Toys . . .”   Letters - Harvard Business Review, March-April 1990.

13.    Bell, Gordon, “Mainframes Won’t Benefit,” Letters – Electronic Business, May 28, 1990,    p 9.

14.  Bell, Gordon, Viewpoint, “If You Like Pointless Exercises . . .You’ll Love the Commerce Department’s Proposed ‘Super’ Definition,”  Computer World, May 28, 1991.

15.  Bell, Gordon, Viewpoint, “Revising Our Technology Policy,”  Computer World, August 14, 1992, p 29.

16.  McCormack, Richard, “Gordon Bell Makes His Case: Get the Feds Out of Computer Architecture,” High Performance Computing and Communications Week, July 8, 1993,    Vol. 2,  No. 27, pp 1, 3-8.

17.  Bell, Gordon, “Why Commercial MPP May be a Market and Technical MPP is Not,” Letter to the Editor, HPCC Week, April 14, 1994, p 4.

18.  Bell, G., "The View from Here", Computer World, March 20, 1995. SNAP Architectural overview.

19.  Bell, G., "Unix's Secret Tax Bill", Computer World, April 24, 1995.

Selected Interviews and Major Articles about Bell

1.      Gordon Bell Discusses Computers—Past, present, and Future Interview in Research/Development Magazine, May 1976.

2.      Engineering at Digital, Gordon Bell Reflects on Engineering at Digital, Digital Review, July 1983, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp 1-6.

3.      In Depth, “A Walk Through The Computer Museum with Gordon Bell,”  Computer World, October 14, 1985, pp 1-23.

4.      Warnock, Rob, “Interview With Gordon Bell,”  Unix Review, February 1986, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 62-68.

5.      Extra, “Beyond VAX: A Conversation with Gordon Bell,”  Computer World, September 2, 1987, pp 78, 80.

6.      Rifkin,G. and G Harrar, The Ultimate Entrepreneur: The  Story of  Ken Olsen and Digital Equipment Corporation, Contemporary Books, Chicago, IL, 1988, Chapters 17, 20, and 30.

7.      Jamie Parker Pearson, editor. “Digital At Work”, Digital Press, Maynard, MA 1992.
DEC Interview for Digital At Work, Gordon Bell, June 28, 1991.

8.      Karlgaard, Rich , "Interview--Gordon Bell, Crusty Hardware Guy",  Upside, Vol. 3, No. 10, December 1991, p 68-79.

9.      Bell, Gordon , “Vax Man Gordon Bell,” interviewed by Glenn Rifkin, Computer World, 25th Anniversary Edition, June 22, 1992, p 13.

10.   Musings on the Millennium: Predictions,  Upside, October 1994, Vol. 6, pp 24-38.

11.  Frankel, Karen A., "A Conversation with Gordon Bell",  ACM Interactions Vol. II, No. 4. 1995 p 66-79.

12.  Allison, David, Smithsonian Institution Videotape Interview for the Smithsonian archives.  Posted in 1996.

13.  Eisenberg, Anne, “Memories as Heirlooms Logged Into a Database”, New York Times, Mar. 20, 2003.

14.  CBS Evening News Interview (4.5 min) April 10, 2007.

15.  Cherry, Steven  "Total Recall", Article on MyLifeBits, IEEE Spectrum, November 2005.  

16.  Sample, Ian, “The man with a perfect memory…” The Guardian, December 28, 2005.

17.  Sample, Ian, “Memories light the corner of my PC” Sydney Morning Herald, December 28,2005.

18.  Thompson, Clive, "A Head for Detail", Article on MyLifeBits in Fast Company, November 2006

19.  Baron, Cheryll “Recording your own life suggests immortality …” SF Chronicle January 28, 2007.

20.  Bell, G., "The Digital Life", Telegraph Review, April 2007, UK.

21.  Georgina Carnegie Analecta Interview “Great Leaders of the World” 19 Feb. 2007.

22.  Alec Wilkinson, “Remember This” The New Yorker, 28 May 2007 issue.

23.  Gaudin, Sharon “Gordon Bell talks about the most influential computers”, Computerworld, April 29, 2008.

24.  Von Klaus Brinkbäumer, Interview in Sunday magazine of Der Spiegel, April 2008.

25.  Bell, G. “Life Logging Pioneer Clarifies the Future of Cloud Computing”, Scientific American Online 24/7 Interview by Larry Greenemeier May 4, 2011.

26.  26. The Uploaded Life – Paramemory and Information Magnetism, Techonomy, November 13, 2012.

Public, Departmental, Company and Microsoft Technical Reports

1.      Bell, C. G., Y. Chu, C. L. Coates, W. Lichtenberger, F. Lucone, W. Viavant, E. J. McCluskey, "An Undergraduate Electrical Engineering Course on Computer Organization", Cosine Report, (October 1968).

2.      Bell, G., and P. Freeman “C.ai: A computing Environment for AI Research"   Overview, PMS, and Operating System Considerations, CMU Dept. of Computer Science, May, 1971.

3.      Bell, G.  S(Magnabus) A Multi-Unibus Switch for PDP-11- or PDP-11 Multiprocessing,” The University of Newcastle Upon Tyne Computing Laboratory, May 27, 1971.

4.      Bell, C. G., H. C. Lauer and B. Randell. “A Switch for Connecting Computer Components,” The University of Newcastle Upon Tyne Computing Laboratory, June 3, 1971

5.      Bell, C. G., W. Broadley, W. Wulf, A. Newell, C Pierson, R. Reddy, and S. RegeC.mmp: The CMU Multiminiprocessor Computer, Requirements and Overview of the Initial Design,” CMU Dept. of Computer Science, August 24, 1971.

6.      Bell, C. G., T. Booth, C. H. Coker, R. M. Glorioso, E. J. McCluskey, F. J. Mowle, D. M. Robinson, "Minicomputers in the Digital Laboratory Program",  COSINE Report (April 1972).

7.      Knudsen, Michael, Gordon Bell and Allen Newell.  “Feasibility Study for the Application of PMSL: A Notation and Data Base to Describe and Analyze Computer Systems,” CMU Dept. of Computer Science, May 30, 1972.

8.      Bell, C. G., M. Knudsen and D. Siewiorek.  “PMS: A Notation to Describe Computer Structures,” CMU Dept. of Computer Science, June 1972.

9.      Barbacci, M., C. G. Bell and A. Newell.  “ISP: A Language to Describe Instruction Sets and Other Register Transfer Systems,” CMU Dept. of Computer Science, July 1972.

10.  Bell, C. G., D. P. Bhandarkar, D. L. Feucht, S. L. Rege and D. L. Siewiorek.  “Large Scale Integration – A Designer’s Viewpoint,” CMU Dept. of Computer Science, September, 1972.

11.  S. H. Fuller, V. R. Lesser, C. G. Bell, and, C. H. Kaman, “Microprogramming and its Relationship to Emulation and Technology",  CMU Dept. of Computer Science, May 1974

12.  Bell, C. G. “Interaction Among Technology, Products and Users”, Proc. Of the Digital Equipment Computer Users Society Conference, Miami, FL, April 1975, pp 871-877.

13.  Bell, C. G., "Technology of Computing and Trends Toward Smaller, Decentralization," Conference on Computing in Science and Education,  U. of California at Irvine (May 9, 1975).

14.  Bell, G. “Why Digital Is Committed to Ethernet for the 5th Generation”, Report of the Talk given at the Digital/Intel/Xerox announcement of Ethernet, New York, Feb. 10, 1982, pp 8.

15.  Bell, C. G., "Microelectronic Competitiveness:  What the President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness Didn't Tell Us", Microelectronics Center of North Carolina Conference  keynote address on Challenges of Next-Generation Commercial Integrated Circuits Technologies:  Submicron Leadership in Design and Manufacturing (March 1985).

16.  Schwartz, J. Panel Chairman,  "Strengthening the National Supercomputing Capability", Institute for Defense Analysis, Memo M101, A Summary Report for the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (May 1985).

17.  Bell, G., "Understanding the Technology Balance Sheet - A Key to Leadership", Honeywell/Sweatt Lectures in Technology Leadership, Center for Technological Leadership, University of Minnesota, Monograph 21, March 11, 1993

18.  Bell, G., "Microprocessor Standards & Markets, Part I: Technology Assessment,
June 30, 1993; Part II: Six Architectural Affiliations, Aug. 18, 1993, Decision Resources Report, Waltham, Massachusetts.

19.  Bell, G., "Future Computing Environments: The commodity Mainframe Era", December 20, 1993, Decision Resources Report, Waltham, Massachusetts.

20.  Bell, G., "The Outlook for Scalable Parallel Processing", June 21, 1994, Decision Resources Report, Waltham, Massachusetts. .

21.  Bell, G., "Scalable Computing: The Coming Juggernaut", October 1994, Decision Resources Report, Waltham, Massachusetts.

22.  Bell, G., "Government Role in Technical Computing: Lessons from the United States", November 28, 1994, Decision Resources Report, Waltham, Massachusetts.

23.  Bell, G. "Prospects for Unix in a Standards World," Decision Resources Report, Feb. 27, 1995.

24.  Bell, and J. Gray. A Revolution Yet to Happen, Technical Report. MSR-TR-98-44

25.  Bell, G. and C. van Ingen, DSM Perspective: Another Point of View. Technical Report MSR-TR-98-72.

26.  Bell, G. A Cyber All Project: A Personal Store for Everything. Technical Report MSR-TR-2000-75.

27.  Bell, G. and J. Gray.  "Digital Immortality: Technical Report MS-TR-2000-101"

28.  Bell, G. and J. Gemmell. A Call for the Home Media Network. MSR-TR-2001-52

29.  Bell, G. and J. Gray. "Crays, Clusters, and Centers. Technical Report MSR-TR-2001-7

30.  Bell, G. Why I Lost the Bet on Video Telephony. Technical Report MSR-TR-2002-52.   

31.  Gemmell, J., Bell, G., Lueder, R., “MyLifeBits: A Personal Database for Everything” Technical Report, February 2006,  MSR-TR-2006-23

32.  Bell, G. “Bell’s Law”. Technical Report.  MSR-TR-2007-146 Bells Law

33.  Szalay, A.S., G. Bell, J.Vandenberg, A. Wonders, R. Burns, D. Fay, J. Heasley, T. Hey, M. Nieto-SantiSteban, A. Thakar, C. van Ingen, and R. Wilton. “GrayWulf: Scalable Clustered Architecture for Data Intensive Computing” Technical Report, MSR-TR-2008-187.

34.  Bell, G. “Out of a Closet: The Early Years of The Computer [X]* Museum”. Technical Report.  MSR-TR-2011-44

35.  Satish, A., G. Bell, J. Gemmell, “Lives: A System for Creating Families of Multimedia Stories”.  Technical Report.  MSR-TR-2011-65.

Assorted Announcements, About Products

1.   Bell, Gordon and Richard Best.  “A Computer That Grows With You,” Business Week, March 14, 1964.

2.    Multimax. Encore Computer Corp.

3.    Titan: A Graphics Supercomputer.

Videotape Lectures and Web Accessible Talks

1.      Bell. G., "The 11 Rules of Supercomputer Design", University Video Communications Distinguished Lecture Series (videotape), Vol. III, UVC, Stanford, Ca. 1989

2.      Bell, G. and Mead, C.  "The Way Things Really Work: Two Inventors on Innovation", University Video Communications Distinguished Lecture Series (videotape), UVC, Stanford, Ca. 1992.

3.      Bell, G., "Tracking the Teraflop", University Video Communications Distinguished Lecture Series (videotape), Vol. VII, UVC, Stanford, Ca., August 1993.

4.      Bell, G. "Mapping the Internet.  Internet 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0: It's Bandwidth and Symmetry, Stupid."  Internet World Keynote 1995.  University Video Communications Distinguished Lecture Series (videotape), UVC, Stanford, Ca. http://www.uvc.com/

5.      Bell, G., Computer Pioneers and Pioneer Computers, two videotapes on the history of computing, produced by Gordon and Gwen Bell, The Computer Museum, and the ACM, June 1996.

6.      Bell, G. “The Laws of Prediction” ACM97 Conference, San Jose, CA, March 3-5, 1997.  See http://research.microsoft.com/acm97.

7.      DECUS 35th Anniversary History Video Interview, June 1996.

8.      Bell, G.  “Entrepreneurial and Intrapreneurial Ventures” Xerox PARC.

9.      MyLifeBits: A lifetime personal store.  Webcast (beginning at 1:22) by Austrian Telecom at Austria's European (Technology) Forum Alpbach, Plenary Session speaker, "The World of Tomorrow", held Thursday 26 August 2004.  See also the PowerPoint presentation (approx. 10 MB).

10.  History of Supercomputers PowerPoint talk (PDF) and one hour Video of a talk  given at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on 24 April, 2013 wmv.

11.  Bell’s Law of Computer Classes (1951-2015). A 50 min talk on my YouTube channel for students of computer history and entrepreneurs describing the dozen computer classes that were formed beginning with mainframes, supers, and minis and going through to the emerging Internet of Things.