The IBM 1800
This third-generation computer is constructed with hybrid-circuit technology (semiconductors bonded to ceramic substrates) known as SLT (Solid Logic Technology). It has a core primary memory.
The 1800 is designed for process control and real-time applications. It is nearly identical to the IBM 1130, which is designed for small-scale, general-purpose, and scientific calculation applications. The two C's perform about the same for computation bound problems. The 1130 and 1800 are not program compatible with the "universal" IBM System/360 series, though introduced at about the same time. However, the 1800 uses terminals and secondary memories similar or identical to the System/360. These are organized about the standard IBM System/360 8-bit byte. Thus their common information media provide a link between the two. Hence an 1800 is sometimes connected to the System/360 as a preprocessor. The relative performance of the IBM 1130, 1800, and the IBM System/360 can be seen on page 586. The 1800 has a better cost/performance ratio than a System/360, Model 40 and has the performance of a Model 30. From now on we will refer only to the IBM 1800, although much applies to the IBM 1130.
The 1800's interface facilities include a large number of T's which can connect to different physical processes; a multiple priority interrupt facility with fast response; multiple Pio's which can transfer information at high data rates;1 and a complete instruction set for real-time, nonarithmetic processing.
We include the 1800 because it is a typical, 16-bit, real-time, process control computer. The ISP is the most straightforward of the IBM computers in the book (and perhaps the nicest). The several different Pio's and their implementations are unusual and should be carefully studied. Important aspects of the 1800 include the PMS structure as it links to real-time processes, e.g., analog processes; the straightforward Pc ISP (Appendix 1 of this chapter); the specialized Pio's for real-time T's; the Pc implementation; and the Pio implementation. The chapter is written to expose and explain these aspects.2
By comparing the 1800 with Whirlwind, an evolutionary progression can be seen. Their ISP's are similar but, because of better technology, the 1800 shows an increase in capability. The 1800 Pc has a medium-sized state (ISP has six registers) including three index registers. The implementation is not elegant; a single register array and adder would provide the basis for a straightforward Pc implementation. The 1800 has features which facilitate higher information processing rates compared with Whirlwind. The major change between Whirlwind and the 1800 machines was brought about by the decreasing cost of registers and primary memory. In the 1800, all K's have independent memory (usually 1 ~ 2 words or characters) so that concurrent operation of almost all the T and Ms via their K's is possible. In contrast, Whirlwind has only a single, shared register in Pc, and only one device can operate at a time.
Lower hardware costs allow multiple Pio's in the 1800. The Pio's represent an unusual approach to information processing in this period. The Pio's which process standard disk, magnetic tape, and card reader are conventional, but the Pio's for analog and process signals are novel and interesting. The latter Pio's are the most unusual part of the 1800, and they allow independent programs in each Pio to do some very trivial processing tasks such as alarm-condition monitoring independent of Pc. However, the Pio's are limited; for example, it is difficult to transmit or receive a data block between Ms and Mp (using a Pio) without surrounding the data block with Pio control words (thereby transmitting the control words).
The interrupt system is typical of second- and third-generation computers and is comparable to the SDS 900 series (Chap. 42). In later computers interrupt conditions are used to determine a fixed address to which the processor interrupts. There are generally many conditions (100 to 1,000), but only a few discrete levels (8 to 20). The 1800 depends on program polling within a discrete interrupt level; each level has a unique, fixed address.
A principal ISP design problem is the addressing of the 65,536- word Mp. Thus, a 16-bit number has to be generated within Pc for an address. In this regard the 1800 behaves like the 12-bit machines which have to address a 212 (4,096) word memory, and the modes or methods the 1800 uses for addressing are reasonable. It should be noted that it is relatively difficult to write programs which do not modify themselves. For example, the instruction, Store Status, is changed by its execution.
1Although we refer to the data channels as Pio's, they have a very limited ISP for a Pio; in fact, they might better be called K's.
2Some of the material in the chapter has been abstracted from the IBM 1800 Functional Characteristics Manual.